Wednesday, May 07, 2014

"Creolization" in Oxford Dictionary of Psychology ** UPDATED x2 ** w/ links on Latin American choral music -- and book review on Alaska creole (kreol) history

The process whereby a pidgin language becomes a creole language. decreolization n. A process whereby speakers of a creole language, co-existing in a community with a standard language that is associated with higher status, prestige, and wealth, come under social pressure to alter their speech in the direction of the standard. hypercreolization n. A reaction by creole speakers against the standard language of a community, motivated by a desire to protect and maintain their ethnic identity, involving the deliberate adoption and emphasis of distinctive features of the creole. See also Black English Vernacular.

"Music in the Vice-Royalties of New Spain and Peru." Lynn Gumert.".

Gumert is Artistic Director, Zorzal Music Ensemble, Hightstown, N.J.

The vast Spanish territory in the new world was divided into two viceroyalties: New Spain, which stretched from the northern limits of the California territory to Costa Rica and from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean; and the Viceroyalty of Peru, which originally included almost the entire continent of South America. The Viceroys’ palaces in Mexico City and Lima were seats of civil authority as well as cultural centers, like European courts. Cathedrals and convents in these cities, as well as in Puebla, Cuzco, and Guatemala City, served as centers for musical instruction and performance in religious services. Although its actions were set against this backdrop of enslavement and abuse, the Catholic Church as an institution was dedicated to saving souls by converting as many non-Europeans as possible to Christianity; at the same time, many individual clergy made an effort to preserve native languages and artifacts. Indeed, one method the Spanish used to assimilate other ethnic groups was by incorporating their rituals into Christian festivals such as Corpus Christi and Christmas.

The most common musical form for both sacred and secular vocal music continued to be the villancico, which kept its lively rhythmic character into the seventeenth century, often expanding to include 5 or 6 voices and a new basso continuo line, a bass line with chord realization symbols beneath, used to guide performers in improvising harmonies. By late in the period many pieces used double or even triple choruses along with small orchestras. Spanish-New World composers integrated indigenous languages, Afro-Spanish dialects, and characteristic rhythmic elements into religious music, while also employing folk rhythms from various regions of Spain. These multicultural mixtures of European melodies and harmonic structure with New World rhythms and melodies are the roots of Latin American traditional music.

From "about" page: "Zorzal (Spanish for wood thrush) is a vocal and instrumental ensemble dedicated to the performance of Spanish and Latin American music from the 12th century to the present. We focus on works that reflect how musical elements from Spain are influenced by and influence other musical cultures, including those from African, Native American, Sephardic, Arabic and other European sources. We ourselves are a crossroads, bringing together a variety of musical backgrounds, education, and experience. Some of us are educators; several of us have extensive experience performing folk music, both American and Latin American. Our interpretations are based on ethnomusicological and musicological research, as well as on knowledge of classical and jazz composition. Our performance practice is at a crossroads between folk vernaculars and classical training, and our mission is at the crossroads of education and pure performance. As Artistic Director of Zorzal Music Ensemble, I research and arrange the music we perform, and also compose new works for the ensemble."

The Choral Music of Latin America: A Guide to Compositions and Research by Suzanne Spicer Tiemstra Google books

Review of Gwenn A. Miller’s Kodiak Kreol: Communities of Empire in Early Russian America by Emily Clark, blogger and grad student at Florida State (? verify school): "Miller’s book offers a colonial narrative far from the cities of Boston, New York, or Charleston that is both similar and different from the stereotypical westward European expansion model. For those of us interested in syncretism, cultural mixing, hybridity, colonial intersections, creolization, or whatever you want to call it, Kodiak Kreol provides another vantage point from which to theorize."

Emily Clark. "Creolization and Kreolozation." Religion in American History. Feb. 18, 2011.

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