Tuesday, September 21, 2010

* gig 09-22 * state museum - notes on tune origins

Vachel Lindsay - sawmill camp near Jacksonville

John Brown's Body - march - civil war

Money Musk
  • Usually played in A major but also very often in G, according to Andrew Kuntz' Fiddler's Companion. But The Session has it in A major, and O'Neill's collection of Irish tunes does too. Interesting comments (as always), including this:

    My dad, who was Glaswegian, used to thump this one out on the piano when I was a wee thing. He always played it with a lift and snap. / My father in law who plays English style, played it very differently, as I recall it was smoother. Some very interesting comments by Alan Jabbour in Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection that I need to go back to: "Henry Reed recorded "Money Musk" four times; it was a project of sorts for him to get it assembled in all its possible parts. The tune--or at least its first two strains--is a Scottish reel from the end of the eighteenth century. [details omitted here] Henry Reed's version is a rarity in the Upper South, and it is all the more extraordinary for adding extra strains that turn the piece into a complex and challenging set piece. His first two strains are always the usual strains of "Money Musk," but following Upper South predilections he begins with the highest strain, and his second strain (the usual first strain) is distinctive in rising to the octave rather than descending to the lower tonic. His third and fourth strains (in this performance) are unique to his performance. ..."
  • "The tune for Money Musk originated in Scotland in 1776 and the first dance instructions appeared in 1785. By 1792, the tune and dance had made it to North America, and both spread rapidly. (Many of today's dancers first encountered the phrase Money Musk when they were children, reading Little House in the Big Woods; it was a tune that Laura's Pa played on his fiddle.)"

    Fiddler's Companion has a detailed history of the tune, which it attributes to 18th-century Scots fiddler Daniel Dow ... says it is named for a Scottish estate and adds "...‘Moneymusk’ is the ‘Englished’ version of the Gaelic words Muine Muisc" which meant some kind of noxious weed).

    “Money Musk” was a popular melody as well as a country dance in America by the 1790’s. American published versions of the music appear beginning in 1796 by B. Carr in Evening Amusements (Philadelphia), and both tune and dance were widely published after that, indicating enormous popularity in America in the last decade of the 18th century into the next. Manuscript versions are also numerous: one appears in Ann Winnington’s music manuscript book (No. 29), c. 1810—the frontispiece in the MS. indicates Winnington resided in New York (although she may have removed at some point to England). Elisabeth Crawford (Massachusetts) penned the dance figures in her 1794 commonplace book that contained the rules of grammar alongside 12 other country dance figures. Southington, Connecticut, musician Joel Allen copied “Money Musk” into his music copybook of around 1800, as did Thomas Cushing around 1805 and Silas Dickinson (Amherst, Massachusetts) around 1800. Onondaga, New York, fluter Daniel Henry Huntington copied it into his manuscript “Preceptor for the Flute” in 1817, as did Newburyport, Massachusetts, musician Samuel Morse in 1811. William Patten (Philadelphia, Pa.) noted it in his copybook from around 1800, as did Cherry Valley, New York, fiddler George White, around 1790. In fact, the country dance "Money Musk” has remained a New England staple for two centuries, although one phrase of the original music has been dropped, while the dance measures stayed the same (thus "cramming 32 measures of dance in to 24 measures of music" note Tony Parkes/Steve Woodruff). In some New England dance circles this dance was traditionally danced immediately after the break, where, for just one example, presumably this was so when it was danced in August, 1914, at the 150th anniversary celebration of the founding of the town of Lancaster, N.H. (it was listed on a playbill preserved in the town history). Peter Yarensky remembers that it used to be the first dance after the break for years at New Hampshire dances, and that “some people would line up for Money Musk before the break even began…” By the 1970’s the tune dance was considered a “chestnut” and it is rarely performed today in New England. ...

    * * *

    In America, in contrast to New England and the eastern seaboard, the tune is very rare in the Southern Appalachians (Jabbour, Krassen/1973), though not unknown. It was recorded as one of the tunes played by fiddler Ben Smith, a Georgian in the Twelfth Alabama Infantry in the Civil War (as listed by Robert Emory Park in Sketch of the Twelfth Alabama Infantry, 1906) {Cauthen, 1990}. Another Civil War reference is to be found in Bell Wiley’s The Life of Johnny Reb, where it is listed among the favorite fiddle tunes of Confederate musicians. ... In the Midwest “Moneymusk” was much more common and the title appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. Missouri fiddlers still play the tune (it was known as a difficult piece and a “big tune” in Mo. fiddle contests up until the 1970's, according to Howard Marshall, though its popularity has waned in recent years), and “Money Musk” is one of ‘100 essential Missouri tunes’ listed by Missouri fiddler Charlie Walden. John Hartford (2001) recorded a three-part version in the key of ‘A’ he learned from Missouri fiddler Roy Wooliver (“the little cross-eyed snaggle-toothed drifter who drifted in an out of almost everything we played, who was a major influence on Gene Goforth when Gene was young, who in turn was a major influence on everybody else who heard him”), that Hartford and Goforth both recorded as “Wooliver’s Money Musk.” Interestingly, Marshall notes “Moneymusk” is known as an “Irish” tune, a thought perhaps derived from its transmission through Scots-Irish immigrants to the mid-South American highlands, and thence to the Mid-West. Early-recorded American versions include that by Jasper Bisbee (for Edison), who was born in 1843, Col. John Pattee (for Columbia), born in 1844, Henry Ford’s Orchestra, and North Carolina fiddler Dad Williams.

Hell Broke Loose in Georgia

  • HELL BROKE LOOSE IN GEORGIA. AKA and see "There's No Hell in Georgia," "Hell Bound for Alabama," "Been to the East, Been to the West," "Great Big Yam Potatoes." Old‑Time, Breakdown. C Major ('A', 'B' and 'D' parts) & A Minor ('C' part). Standard tuning. AABCC'DD'. The title perhaps dates to the gold rush in Georgia before the settlement of Gordon County in 1850 (approx. c. 1830). There are three distinct fiddle tunes that have been identified with this title. The tune was used in 1899 in a Gallatin Tenn. fiddle contest as a category tune ‑ each fiddler played a version, with the best version winning a prize (all fiddlers playing a rendition of the same commonly known tune was formerly a common way of structuring fiddle contests) [C.Wolfe, The Devil's Box, vol. 14, No.4, 12/1/80]. Cauthen (1990) finds reference to a Georgia fiddler, Ben Smith, who served with the 12th Alabama Infantry in the Civil War, and was known to have played the tune in that conflict. She also cites A.B. Moore in his History of Alabama (1934) who said it was one of the standard tunes in the square dance fiddler's repertoire. The melody "Streak O' Lean, Streak O' Fat" is related to Phillips' version of the tune, as is “Big Footed N....r [2]” and “Possum Up a Gum Stump [2].” This was the four-part version recorded by the Skillet Lickers. The title appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. Source for notated version: Ruthie Dornfeld (Seattle) [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), vol. 1, 1994; pg. 110. Songer (Portland Collection).
  • HELL BROKE LOOSE IN GEORGIA [2?]. American, Reel. USA, southwestern Pa. G Major. Standard tuning. AB. Bayard (1981) identifies this tune as a composite with an 'A' part from British Isles tradition, attached to a 'B' part newly composed. The 'A' part appears to be the Scottish "My Ain Kind Deary O," which can be traced to the 1760's; the tune is also known as "Christmas Eve [1]," and the march sets "Our President," "Here's a Health unto Our Leader," and "The Fearless Boys" {Bayard also links these tunes to "Oh! Lassie, Art Thou Sleeping Yet," and suggests they are all part of a "moderate sized tune family of perhaps some respectable antiquity" i.e. they are descended from some unknown original single air}. Source for notated version: Abraham Gray (Westmoreland County, Pa., 1930's) [Bayard]. Bayard (Dance to the Fiddle), 1981; No. 106, pg. 61.
Year of Jubilee [Jubilo]

  • - sheet music - civil war
Sailor's Hornpipe
  • SAILOR'S HORNPIPE [1]. AKA and see "College Hornpipe," “Duke William’s Hornpipe,” "Jack's the Lad [1]," "Lancashire Hornpipe [1]." English (originally), American; Reel, Hornpipe, or Breakdown. England, Northumberland. USA; New York, southwestern Pa., West Virginia, Alabama, Arkansas. G Major (Most versions): D Major (Sweet): B Flat Major (Hardings, Seattle/Vickers). Standard tuning. AABB. Originally titled the "College Hornpipe" this melody became known as the "Sailor's Hornpipe" through its association with the performance of the hornpipe dance, typically performed on the stage in nautical costume (see notes for "College Hornpipe"). At the turn of the 18th century a sailor was a favorite character of the musical stage and the nautical theme became so associated with the dance that many hornpipes were generically labeled a 'sailor's hornpipe'. The dance itself features a distinctive 'side-cutting' step. The style retained its popularity throughout the century, and none‑less than J. Scott Skinner, the famous Scottish violinist who was also a dancing master, taught the dance at Elgin and other places to his pupils. George Emerson, in his article on the Hornpipe (Folk Music Journal, vol. 2, No. 1, 1970) finds an early reference:

    ”at Drury lane, May 1740, Yates ..is .. billed to perform a 'hornpipe in the character of Jacky Tar. There is no mention then or later of anyone performing 'the' or 'a' sailor's hornpipe. It is always a 'hornpipe in the character of a sailor'..”


    As the "College Hornpipe" the tune was in print in 1797 or 1798 by J. Dale of London, and although the melody predates Dale's publication, the English antiquarian Chappell's editor dates it no earlier than the second half of the 18th century. Emerson suggests the comic ballet The Wapping Landlady (1767) was the source of the Sailor Hornpipe that was famously danced by the American dancer Durang for some twenty years at the end of the 18th century. The ballet featured the trials of Jack Tar ashore, and was choreographed by Arnold Fisher (of “Fisher’s Hornpipe” fame). See also note for “College Hornpipe” for more.


    "Sailor's Hornpipe" was imported to North America where it entered traditional repertoire and became fairly widely known, still with its nautical connotations--so strong was the association, in fact, that it was selected as the theme song of a popular mid-20th century animated cartoon character, Popeye the Sailorman. Bronner (1987) reports the earliest known printing in the United States was in a publication by B. Carr entitled Evening Entertainments in the year 1796 (under the "College Hornpipe" title). Although the name "Sailor's Hornpipe" has been something of a floating title in the United States, it is probably the 'College' tune under this title which was cited as having commonly been played for country dances in Orange County, New York, in the 1930's (Lettie Osborn, New York Folklore Quarterly). Similarly in American tradition, it was played at a fiddle contest in Verbena, Alabama, in 1921 (as noted in the Union Banner of October 27, 1921), and also in another 1920's contest in Georgia by one R.L. Stephens of Camp Hill, Alabama (according to the Columbus (Ga.) Register of December 10‑12, 1926) {Cauthen, 1990}. The title also appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. The late Kentucky fiddler George Lee Hawkins, renowned as a "hornpipe fiddler," played “Sailors” in the key of F. Sources for notated verisons: W. Franklin George (W.Va.) [Krassen]; Floyd Woodhull, 1976 (New York State) [Bronner]; Marion Yoders (fiddler and fifer from Greene County, Pa., 1963) and Brown Hall (fiddler from Fayette County, Pa., 1956) [Bayard]. Bayard (Dance to the Fiddle), 1981; No. 310E‑F, pgs. 262‑263. Brody (Fiddler’s Fakebook), 1983; pg. 243. Bronner (Old Time Music Makers of New York State), 1987; No. 10, pg. 56. Cole (1000 Fiddle Tunes), 1940; pg. 87 (appears as "College Hornpipe"). Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; pg. 46. Hardings All-Round Collection, 1905; No. 177, pg. 56. Krassen (Appalchian Fiddle), 1973; pg. 83. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), vol. 2, 1995; pg. 222. Seattle (William Vickers), 1987; No. 439 (appears as "College Hornpipe"). Sweet (Fifer’s Delight), 1965/1981; pg. 41.

*Baby on the Block / Babies on Our Block
  • Edward Harrigan and David Branham - show tune - from "Mulligan's Guard" (1879) first American musical comedy - From the discussion on Musicals 101.com ... Harrigan and Braham's songs were in the popular style of their day, with lots of sentiment and street-smart humor. The lyrics were redolent with slang, ethnic accents and imperfect grammar, speech forms which had not been set to music before. New Yorkers adored these tunes, and every neighborhood in Manhattan rang with renditions of "Paddy Duffy's Cart" or "The Babies on Our Block" –

Lady on the Lake -- Kuntz has nine (!) entries ... a couple of candidates below
  • LADY OF THE LAKE [1] (Bean Uasal an Loca). AKA and see “Billy the Barber (Shaved His Father).” English, Irish; Single Jig. England, Northumberland. G Major (most versions): A Major (Kerr). Standard tuning. ABB' (Kerr): (Shields/Goodman): AABB' (Hall & Stafford, Kennedy, Raven). The title (and tune) is at least as old as Church of Ireland cleric James Goodman’s mid-19th century music manuscripts. Goodman (1828-1896) was an uilleann piper, and an Irish speaker who collected locally in County Cork and elsewhere in Munster. He also obtained tunes from manuscripts and printed collections. The melody (and title) appears in English and Scottish publications later in the 19th century. There is a country dance also called Lady of the Lake, but this tune was not associated with it in New England in the early 20th century (see version #5). In fact, there are several unrelated tunes called “Lady of the Lake,” a situation which stems presumably from association with the dance of the same name. ...
  • LADY OF THE LAKE [5]. AKA and see “Gypsy Hornpipe [4],” “Miss Johnson’s Hornpipe,” “Old Towser,” “Portsmouth Hornpipe,” American, Reel. USA, New England. G Major. Standard tuning. AB (Silberberg): AA'BB' (Phillips). The New England contra-dance Lady of the Lake is set to this melody, although other tunes have also been used as vehicles for the steps. Linscott (Folk Songs of Old New England, 1939) thought the dance itself was derived from the Weavers' Guild, although he could find no specific citations regarding its origins. He notes, however, that there is an old tune "Launcelot du Lake" attached to a ballad founded on the romance of Sir Launcelot du Lake, and speculates it may be the dance and tune originated from that source. Regarding the music itself, “Lady of the Lake” is a wide-spread melody whose melodic material crops up often: the first strain of the tune also appears in Ryan/Coles as “You Bet Reel” and “Silver Cluster Reel.” A Missouri title is “Gypsy Hornpipe.” See Bayard Hill Country Tunes “Buttermilk and Cider” and the first strain of his No. 35. See also Irish variants in O’Neill—“Off to California,” and “Whiskey You’re the Devil.” Gary Stanton of Fredricksburg, Va., has sleuthed the dissemination of the tune in modern old-time circles, finding that it is originally sourced to two unnamed renderings (one as a schottische, one as a polka) in the key of G recorded and transcribed from the playing of Glen Lyn, Va., fiddler Henry Reed. Alan Jabbour visited Reed in the 1960’s and researched much of his repertoire, teaching it to others. Bertram Levy picked up the tune, still unnamed, from Jabbour when they both lived in Durham, N.C. in the 1960’s and took it with him when he moved to Palo Alto in 1968, teaching it to Marty Somberg around 1970. Somberg was Seattle accordion player Laurie Andres source, who in turn taught it to New Hampshire fiddler Rodney Miller (see recording cited below). ... y:
  • LADY OF THE LAKE [6]. AKA and see "Ducks in the Pond." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Virginia. D Major/A Mixolydian. Standard tuning. AABB (Phillips, Songer, Wilkinson): AA’B (Silberberg).The melody appears under this title in George P. Knauff's Virginia Reels, volume III (Baltimore, 1839) and was played by J.H. Chisholm in the Wilkinson Manuscript collection of Virginia Tunes. This is a melody that is known as an old Virginia tune, a distinct and unusual version of which was collected from Parley Parsons of Galax, Va., by Paul Brown, Alice Gerard and Andy Cahan. Hillsville, Virginia, fiddler Norman Edwards also played a version. Alan Jabbour learned the tune from Joe Anglin, in Martinsburg, Virginia, in the 1960’s, and consider’s Henry Reed’s “Ducks on the Pond” a variant. In fact, many of the old-time versions span wide degrees of variations, and it was fairly common among fiddlers in the Upland South. John Hartford points out that Sir Walter Scott’s poem “Lady of the Lake” was popular on the American frontier. Tonality of this tune varies: different versions emphasize either the A mixolydian or D major chordal underpinning for the tune. ...
The Irish Washerwoman
  • IRISH WASHERWOMAN, THE (An Bhean Niochain Eireannach). AKA and see "Corporal Casey [1]," "Country Courtship," "Dargason," "Irishwoman," "The Irish Wash‑Woman," “Irish Waterman,” "Jackson's Delight [1]," "Paddy McGinty's Goat," "The Wash Woman," "The Scheme," "The Snouts and Ears of America," "Star at Liwis," "Sedany." Irish, English, Scottish, American; Double Jig. USA; Very widely known. G Major ('B' part is in G Mixolydian in some Scottish versions). Standard tuning. AA'B (Breathnach): AABB (most versions): AA'BB' (Gow, Perlman): AABBCC (Ashman). Although the tune has popularly been known as an old, and perhaps quintessential Irish jig, it has been proposed by some writers to have been an English country dance tune that was published in the 17th century and probably known in the late 16th century. Samuel Bayard (1981), for example, concludes it probably was English in origin rather than Irish, being derived from the air called "Dargason," or "Sedany" as it is sometimes called. Fuld (1966) disagrees, believing "Dargason" (which he gives under the title "Scotch Bagpipe Melody") and "The Irish Washerwoman" developed independently. "Dargason" was first printed in Ravenscroft's Pammelia (1609) and appears in the Playford's Dancing Master editions from 1651 to 1690, but subsequently the "folk process" melded the strain to other parts, thus making other tunes (see "The Green Garters" for example) including the precursors to the Washerwoman tune. One of these precursors was the English tune "Country Courtship" which dates from at least 1715 and probably to 1688, in which latter mentioned year it was first entered at Stationers' Hall. "The Irish Washerwoman" appears to have developed from "The Country Courtship," which was extremely popular in the 19th century, as the tune under the "Washerwoman" title was to become a little later. The ending of the jig is the same as the endings of “In Bartholemew Fair” and “The Free Masons [1].” Breathnach (1976) finds the second part identical to that of “Star at Liwis or The Scheme” printed by Walsh in Caledonian Country Dances (c. 1730, pg. 59). The melody was found by the author of English Folk-Song and Dance (pg. 144) in the repertoire of fiddler William Tilbury (who lived at Pitch Place, midway between Churt and Thursley in Surrey), who used, in his younger days, to play at village dances. Tilbury learned his repertoire from an uncle, Fiddler Hammond, who died around 1870 and who was the village fiddler before him. The conclusion was that “Haste to the Wedding” and melodies of similar type survived in English tradition (at least in southwest Surrey) well into the second half of the 19th century.


    A variant of the modern version of the tune appears as air 13 in Samuel Arnold's stage piece The Surrender of Calais, report Van Cleef and Keller (1980), which was first performed in London in 1791. It was sung by the character O'Carrol, and Irish soldier, and the song became known as "Corporal Casey:"

    When I was at home I was merry and frisky
    My Dad kept a pig and my mother sold whiskey.
    My Uncle was rich but he would never be easy
    'Til i was enlisted by Corporal Casey.

    Oh, rub a dub, row de dow Corporal Casey,
    My dear little Sheelah I thought would run crazy,
    Oh when I trudged away with tough Corporal Casey.

    As "Corporal Casey," the tune appears in Instructions for the Fife (London, 1795). The melody also found its way into various broadsides and similar 'low' publications, such as the latter 18th century "Irishman's Epistle to the Officer's and Troups at Boston" (sic). Later the song “Paddy McGinty’s Goat” was set to the tune of “Irish Washerwoman.” Shropshire musician John Moore penned a version in his notebook of c. 1837-1840 which has a third part in 3/8 time, breaking the pattern of the rhythm--perhaps, thinks editor Gordon Ashman, it was used in an introductory mode for "setting" or "step to your partner." Under the title “The Irish Quadrilles” it was included by Lincolnshire papermaker and musician Joshua Gibbons in his 1823-26 music manuscript book.


    Fuld (1966) finds the earliest printings of the tune under the title "Irish Washerwoman" to be in Neil Gow's A Third Collection of Strathspey Reels &c for the Piano-forte, Violin and Violoncello (1792) and James Aird's A Selection of Scotch, English, Irish and Foreign Airs (1794). Breathnach noted Dublin publication of “The Wash Woman” by Henry Mountian, c. 1785 and Ă“ Canainn (1978) finds it printed in Brysson’s A Curious Selection of Favourite Tunes with Variations to which is appended “Fifty Favourite Irish Airs” (Edinburgh, 1790) under the title “Irish Waterman.” Fuld also finds the melody under the title "The Melody of Cynwyd" in Edward Jones' Musical and Poetical Relicks of the Welsh Bards (London, 1794). Bruce Olson suggests that “The Wash Woman” was probably the original title, with ‘Irish’ being prefixed to the title outside of Ireland as an identifier--he thinks there were probably many tunes with ‘Irish’ in the title that identified place of origin and that were not part of the original title.


    By the end of the 18th century the tune was identified with Ireland, and it is not surprising that that country also has laid claim to the tune. It has been reported that it was written by 19th century piper, fiddler and composer "Piper" Jackson, who was from either County Limerick or County Monaghan (according to the Boys of the Lough). Breathnach (1976) reports that Henry Mountain, No. 20 White Friar Street, Dublin, printed the melody in about the year 1785, calling it “The Wash Woman,” a favourite New Country Dance. A few years later is appeared in Lee’s New Collection of Irish Country Dances for the year 1788. The title appears in a list of tunes in his repertoire brought by Philip Goodman, the last professional and traditional piper in Farney, Louth, to the Feis Ceoil in Belfast in 1898 (Breathnach, 1997). In modern times in Ireland the tune is rarely played, remarks Caoimhin Mac Aoidh, as it is considered trite and hackneyed, though it does retain strong currency among County Donegal fiddlers who play several elaborate versions. Doolin, County Clare, whistle player Micho Russell called it “The Big Jig.”


    American versions with the "Washerwoman" title appear toward the end of the 18th century. It was contained in A Collection of Contra Dances (Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1792) under the title "Irish Wash Woman," and several American dance copybooks contain various dances to the melody, including Nancy Shepley's Manuscript (Pepperell, Massachusetts, c. 1795) and different figures in Asa Wilcox's MS (Hartford County, Conecticut, 1793). A third dance can be found in Gentleman and Lady's Companion (Norwich, Connecticut, 1798), while A Collection of Contra Dances (Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1792) gives a dance similar to that copied by Shepley. Van Cleef and Keller (1980) state the name changes from "Irish Wash Woman" to "Irish Washerwoman" around 1795; it appears under the latter title in Benjamin and Joseph Carr’s Evening Amusement in 1796 (Philadelphia). The tune retained its popularity, at least for contra dancing, and was cited as having commonly been played for Orange County, New York country dances in the 1930's (Lettie Osborn, New York Folklore Quarterly), by 20th century Arizona fiddler Kenner C. Kartchner for dances in the Southwest, and by contemporary Buffalo Valley, Pa., dance fiddlers Ralph Sauers and Harry Daddario. Viola “Mom” Ruth, in her collection Pioneer Western Folk Tunes (1948) appends to the “Irish Washer Women” that it was what she played when she “Won the state’s (Arizona) championship 1926.” Galax, Virginia, fiddler Emmett Lundy had a waltz version of “Irish Washerwoman,” and southeastern Tennessee fiddler Blaine Smith played a duple-time version, as did Arkansas fiddler Absie Morrison (1876-1964)—see “Irish Washerwoman [2].” Tommy Dandurand recorded it as a vehicle for a ‘singing call’ in the 1920’s, which became fairly well-known among square dancers in the United States, says Paul Gifford. O’Neill printed the tune as “Irishwoman” in his 1915 O’Neill’s Irish Music, presumably editing out the word ‘washer’ in the title because he found it demeaning or offensive. The earliest sound recording of the melody is by Charles D. Almaine (1904), and it was issued on American 78 RPM’s by Maine fiddler Mellie Dunham (1926), Kentucky fiddler Doc Roberts with guitarist Asa martin (1928) and Virginia’s Kessinger Brothers (1930).


    Other than for dancing, it was popular as a vehicle for "American stage Yankees," and according to Bronner (1987) it was included in the music to the "Federal Overture" (published by B. Carr in 1795) which played to theatres in Philadelphia and New York just prior to and at the beginning of the 1800's. Outside of the east coast Musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph recorded the tune for the Library of Congress from Ozark Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's and it was recorded as having been predicted by a local southwest Alabama paper (the Clarke County Democrat) in May, 1929, that it would by played at an upcoming fiddlers' contest. It appears in the repertoire list of Maine fiddler Mellie Dunham (the elderly Dunham was Henry Ford's champion fiddler in the 1920's). Galax, Virginia, region fiddler Emmett Lundy, who had an archaic style, played a waltz version of “The Irish Washerwoman.”


    The melody is referred to by Bayard (1944) in his note for "The Snouts and Ears of America,” but Breathnach (1976) regards it as a “stain on the honour of washer women” that the tune was used for that song and “Paddy McGinty’s Goat” in the United States. Bayard reports that in Pennsylvania the following rhymes were collected with the tune:


    Jim Doodle, he dramp that his father was dead,
    And his father he dramp that Jim Doodle was dead. (x2)

    Jim Doodle, Jim Daddle, Jim Doodle, Jim Daddle,
    Jim Doodle he gramp that his father was dead;
    Jim Doodle he dramp that his father was dead,
    And his father he dramp that Jim Doodle was dead.


    Jim Doodle didn't know that his father was dead,
    And his father didn't know that Jim Doodle was dead,
    And they both lay dead on the same damn' bed,
    And neither one knew that the other was dead. (Bayard)


    I have heard nearly the same rhyme with the name "McTavish" substituted for "Jim Doodle." Also from Pennsylvania:


    We've plenty of horses, the best to be got,
    The ones that can canter, the ones that can trot‑‑ (Bayard).


    Introduced to the Shetland islands "by Scots girls (in the last decade of the 19th century) who came up in their hundreds during the herring season to live and work as gutters and packers at the numerous fishing stations which mushroomed each year around the Shetland shoreline" (Cooke, 1986).


    Perlman (1996) notes that, unlike Ireland, the tune is one of the most widely played by fiddlers on Prince Edward Island. At the beginning of the 20th century in Cape Breton a solo dance called The Irish Washerwoman was in the repertoire of Donald Beaton, an itinerant tailor and an influential dancer and fiddler in the region around Mabou. It originally consisted of 12 steps.


    Sources for notated versions: John Bennett (Cimarron County, Oklahoma) [Thede]: Edson Cole (Freedom, N.H.) [Linscott]; {1} Floyd Woodhull, 1976 and {2} Hornellsville Hillbillies, 1943 (New York State) [Bronner]; 13 southwestern Pa. fiddlers and fifers [Bayard]; fiddler Paddy Fahy, 1970 (Ballinasloe, Co. Galway, Ireland) [Breathnach]; a c. 1837-1840 MS by Shropshire musician John Moore [Ashman]; Attwood O’Connor (b. 1923, Milltown Cross, South Kings County, Prince Edward Island) [Perlman]; the 1823-26 music mss of papermaker and musician Joshua Gibbons (1778-1871, of Tealby, near Market Rasen, Lincolnshire Wolds) [Sumner].

Edgar Lee Masters w/ John Armstrong in Oakford

Rocky Road to Jordan
  • ROCKY ROAD TO JORDAN. Old-Time, Breakdown. D Major. From the playing of Dwight “Red” Lamb. “Rocky Road to Jordon” is one of ‘100 essential Missouri tunes’ listed by Missouri fiddler Charlie Walden.
  • "Chirps" Smith plays it.
    Way Up Tar Creek
  • Armstrong's name for it.

Foggy Mountain Top
Hell Amongst the Yearlings
  • Alan Jabour http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/afcreed:@field(NUMBER+@band(afcreed+13705b21)) Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection ""Hell among the Yearlings" (sometimes known in bowdlerized forms such as "Rounding Up the Cattle") is a tune of the Upper South. It was recorded by West Virginian Clark Kessinger on an early hillbilly record with an irregular first strain that lingers on the high A and requires two extra beats. Nearly all current versions in bluegrass style or in contest fiddling circles perpetuate this irregularity, but Henry Reed's set has the normal number of bars and beats."

    Andrew Kuntz http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/HEL_HER.htm Fiddler's Companion
    HELL AMONG(ST) THE YEARLINGS [1]. AKA ‑ "Trouble Among the Yearlings," "Hell After the Yearlings," "Devil Among the Yearlings," "Round Up the Yearlings," "Hell Among the Indians." Old‑Time, Breakdowwn. USA; Oklahoma, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska. G Major (Ford, Thede): D Major (Bayard, Brody, Christeson, Fiddler Magazine, John Hatcher, Phillips): C Major (Christeson/1984, Songer). Standard tuning. AB (Christeson, 1984): AA'B (Bayard): AABB (Thede): AA'BB (Phillips): AA'BB' (Fiddler Magazine): AABBCCDD (Songer). Several unrelated tunes in various parts of the United States carry the name “Hell Among(st) the Yearlings,” so obviously a memorable title in rural communities. The title has itself aroused some speculation. It is thought by some to represent ‘trouble with the cattle’—yearlings being young cattle that are bred for the first time and quite rambunctious. Another interpretation hinges on ‘hell’ as a term for dense underbrush and thicketed country, with the title meaning that the yearlings are in the underbrush, thus making it quite a chore to round them up. Chicago musician Paul Tyler made the following comments (Fiddle-L, 5/10/04).

    [quotes Masters with this headnote: "In 1939, Edgar Lee Masters (of Spoon River fame) published in Esquire an account of a visit he made with Theodore Dreiser to the home fiddler John Armstrong in Oakford, Illinois. The account reappeared in Masters’ book The Sangamon in the Rivers of America series.]"

Little Drops of Brandy
  • DROPS OF BRANDY [1] (“Braona Brannda” or “Braoinini Brannda”). AKA and see “Cummilum,” "Drops of Whiskey," "A Drop of Whiskey," "New Drops of Brandy," "Oh, Mary Take My Advice." Irish (originally?), Scottish, English; Jig (9/8 time). England; Shropshire, Lancashire, Northumberland, Lincolnshire. G Major (most versions): A Major (Martin, Silberberg, Trim). Standard tuning. AB (O'Neill/1001, Silberberg): AAB (Tubridy): AABB (most versions). AABB’ (Martin). There are two main versions of this tune, an old and a new, the latter often known as "New Drops of Brandy." The older versions can be found in the English manuscripts of John Moore and William Vickers. Merryweather (1989) notes it bears some resemblance to Playford's "Scotland." The title appears in Henry Robson's list of popular Northumbrian song and dance tunes, which he published c. 1800 and also appears in the Scottish Drummond Castle Manuscript in the possession of the Earl of Ancaster at Drummond Castle. This latter MS is inscribed "A Collection of Country Dances written for the use of his Grace the Duke of Perth by Dav. Young, 1734" (and for this reason it is sometimes called the Duke of Perth MS). Editor Seattle (1987) says Vickers' version is a non-standard variation. There is some evidence a 17th century Scots jig called “Hey My Nannie” is ancestral to “Drops of Brandy.”


    Drops of Brandy is also the name of a specific country dance known throughout the British Isles under two names. In Ireland, O’Neill (1913) tells us “a special dance was performed to the melody,” and indeed, “Drops of Brandy” is a favorite tune for solo step dancing competitions. A Scottish dance called Drops of Brandy was performed to a schottische, while the exact same figures were danced to a jig and known as the dance Strip the Willow, report Flett & Flett (1964). In fact, the R.S.C.D.S.’s “official” tune for the dance Strip the Willow is “Drops of Brandy,” although a variety of suitable jigs in 6/8 time are also employed on the ceilidh circuit. Emmerson (1972) states that the tune “Drops of Brandy” is often associated with the dance Strip the Willow, so much so that in England the dance is known by the title Drops of Brandy (although it is performed there to schottische-type tunes); “Today, Strip the Willow can be encountered danced to marches or to reels with Country Dance steps, or more often with unbridled abandon.” Martin (2002) also suggests the tune as a vehicle for the dance Strip the Willow (played in a medley with “Brose and Butter” and “I Hae a Wife of my Ain”). Compare also with untitled slip jig collected from Donegal fiddler John Doherty, printed in The Northern Fiddler (1979, pg. 61b), and with the related “Jaunting Car for Six.” “Drink of Brandy” is a similarly named, although unrelated slip jig.


    Anne Lederman, in her entry on “Fiddling” in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (1992), identifies “Drops of Brandy” as one of two important tunes in the ‘fur-trade’ repertoire of the 18th and 19th centuries in Canada (along with “La grande gigue simple” and cognates). It was the vehicle for the Scottish line dance (also called Drops of Brandy), and Lederman suggests the tune was derived from a Scottish 6/4 hornpipe (or ‘Old Hornpipe’ time). The tune also went by the titles “Le Brandy,” “The Hook Dance” and “La danse du crochet” as well as various titles in native languages, writes Lederman. See also the version in Ann Winnington’s music manuscript book (no. 19), c. 1810, wherein the frontispiece indicates she resided in New York.

The Wind that Shakes the Barley
  • WIND THAT SHAKES/SHOOK THE BARLEY [1], THE ("An Ghaoth a Bhogann," "An Ghaoth/Gaot a Chroitheann/Corruideann an Eorna" or "An Gaot A Biodgeas An T-Orna"). AKA and see "Duncan Davidson," “(An) Gaoth A Chroitheanna an Eorna,” "I Sat (with)in the Valley Green," "The Kerry Lasses [3],” "Rolling Down the Hill [2]." Irish, Scottish, Shetland, American, New England; Reel. D Major (most versions): G Major (Hardings): D Mixolydian (Carlin). Standard tuning. AB (Allan's, Breathnach, Cole, Harker/Rafferty, Honeyman, Mallinson, O'Neill/1850, Stanford/Petrie, Surenne, Sweet, Tubridy): AAB (Athole): AA'B (O'Neill/Krassen, 1915): AAB (Brody, Carlin, Flaherty, Hunter, S. Johnson, Kerr, Neil, Skye, Sumner): ABB (Phillips): AABB (Hardings, Miller & Perron). The Irish musicologist Father Henebry considered this tune originally Scottish (as did Breathnach), but Bayard (1981) finds almost no Scottish traditional forms; he found numerous versions in Irish and Irish‑American currency. Emmerson (1971), however, states the tune is "substantially a set of the 'Fairy Dance,'" which is definately Scottish and whose full title is "Largo's Fairy Dance," composed by Nathaniel Gow.


    “The Wind that Shakes the Barley” was cited as having commonly been played for Orange County, New York, country dances in the 1930's (Lettie Osborn, New York Folklore Quarterly)./ "The (Provance) version...contains a feature common enough in old‑country reels, but seldom encountered in American variants: namely, the 'circular' construction, which provides for the tune's going on indefinitely without coming to a complete cadence. F.P. Provance stated that he learned this set 'among the Dutch' in eastern Fayette and western Somerset Counties‑‑an interesting evidence of how the German settlers have adopted the tradition of the Irish whom they encountered on their arrival in Pennyslvania" (Bayard, 1944). It was recorded on 78 RPM disc by Beaver Island, Michigan, fiddler Patrick Bonner, who had several Irish-style tunes in his repertoire. Beaver Island was settled by a number of immigrants from Arranmore island, off the coast of Donegal, and the Donegal fiddling tradition can be heard in Bonner’s playing (he was the youngest son of immigrants from Arranmore).


    The title appears in Henry Robson's list of popular Northumbrian song and dance tunes ("The Northern Minstrel's Budget"), which he published c. 1800.
Good Mornin' Uncle Johnny I've Fetched Your Wagon Home
  • Armstrong's name for it.
  • Armstrong's name for it. - my guess is that it's "Jug of Punch"
    Chaw Roast Beef
  • Armstrong's name for it.
    * The Missouri Harmony
    • Thomas Moore, "The Legacy"

    Turkey in the Straw / Zip Coon
    • TURKEY IN THE STRAW. AKA and see "Old Zip Coon," "Natchez Under the Hill [1]," "The Old Bog Hole." Old‑Time, Breakdown: Irish, English, Canadian; Reel or Hornpipe. USA, Widely known and has even entered English country dance tradition. Canada, Prince Edward Island (where Ken Perlman says it is a very popular tune). G Major (Bayard, Brody, Linscott, O'Neill, Perlman, Phillips, Raven, Ruth, Shaw, Sweet): C Major (Ford): D Major (Bayard, Moylan). Standard tuning. AB (Bayard, Shaw): AABB (most versions).


      An overwhelmingly popular tune in American fiddle tradition. Bayard (1981) suggests that a Scottish tune called "The (Bonny) Black Eagle" (also called "The Way to Edinburgh" by Oswald) resembles "Turkey in the Straw" in in both parts. Besides Samuel Bayard, Alan Jabbour, Winston Wilkinson, George Pullen Jackson and others think that a tune with an even stronger resemblance in the first part to the first part of Turkey is "The Rose Tree [1]" (Maureen ni Cullenaun). Their apparent conclusion is that the Turkey tune is a composite of two older Scottish tunes, the 'A' part of "The Rose Tree" and the 'B' part of "The (Bonny) Black Eagle." There are other speculations: Nathan ("Dan Emmett," pg. 168) gives an Irish reel which seems to bear close resemblance to the 'A' part of Turkey, while Dreamer (in the Oxford Book of Carols, pg. 252) gives a "little known Scottish melody" with a second section equivlent to that of Turkey (Bayard wonders if this particular strain has long been a floater). According to Linscott (1939) the tune is based on the old song "My Grandmother Loved on Yonder Little Green." Michael Cooney lists a number of fiddle tunes to which "Turkey in the Straw" is supposed to have been related, including "Glasgow Hornpipe" (Irish), "Haymaker's Dance" (English), "The Post Office" (Irish), "Lady Shaftsbury's Reel" (Scottish), "Rose Tree in Full Bearing" (Irish), "Old Mother Oxford" (a morris dance tune known in England and Scotland), and "Kinnegad Slashers" (Irish). Captain Francis O’Neill, in Waifs and Strays of Gaelic Melody suggested the latter was the original source of “Turkey,” although most reviewers dismiss this as an incidental resemblance only based on some similarities in the first part.


      Whatever its origins, it was "undoubtedly in American folk tradition before the 19th century," says Bronner (1987), and that popular theater and minstrel groups during the 19th century helped consolidate and spread its popularity (it was often called "Old Zip Coon" in minstrel tradition). Fuld reports the title "Turkey in de Straw" appeared in 1861 attached to the tune through new song lyrics, copyrighted by one Dan Bryant, the melody labelled only an "old melody," presumably referring to “Old Zip Coon.”


      Mention of the tune in playlists, periodicals and literature abound. “Turkey” was cited as having commonly been played for Orange County, New York, country dances in the 1930's (Lettie Osborn, New York Folklore Quarterly); Bronner (1987) agrees that it was commonly played in New York state for dances in the early 20th century. It was in the repertory of Buffalo Valley, Pa., region dance fiddlers Harry Daddario and Ralph Sauers. It was one of the tunes listed by the Clarke County Democrat of May 9, 1929, that was predicted would "be rendered in the most approved fashion" at an upcoming contest in Grove Hill, Alabama (Cathen, 1990). “Turkey” was played at a fiddlers' contest in Verbena in 1921 according to the Union Banner of October 27, 1921, and was one of the melodies listed as an example of an "acceptable old‑time number for a fiddlers' convention in Fayette, Alabama (Northwest Alabamian, September 4, 1930) {Cauthen, 1990}. Cauthen (1990) further cites a 1925 University of Alabama master's thesis by S.M. Taylor entitled "A Preliminary Survey of Folk‑Lore in Alabama" in which the tune is listed, and found it mentioned by Lamar County, Alabama, fiddler D. Dix Hollis in the Opelika Daily News of April 17, 1926, as one of "the good old tunes of long ago." The title appears in a list of the repertoire of Maine fiddler Mellie Dunham (the elderly Dunham was Henry Ford's champion fiddler in the late 1920's). Catskill Mountain region fiddler Harry Robinson (Lackawack, New York) was recorded in the field in 1944 by Benjamin A. Botkin (AFS 7759) playing an unaccompanied version of "Turkey in the Straw." The tune was recorded for the Library of Congress by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, from the playing of Ozark Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's, while Texas fiddler Eck Robertson's (with Henry Gilliland) recording of the piece (backed with "Ragtime Annie") was the third best-selling country music record of 1923. It was in the repertoire of Virginia's Fiddlin' Cowan Powers and Family in the 1920's, and West Virginia fiddler Edden Hammons played a version. Paul Gifford remarks that, around the Sault Ste. Marie area of northern Michigan and Ontario, “Turkey in the Straw” is played in the tradition in the key of B Flat Major. The Skillet Lickers (in the configuration of Gid Tanner and Clayton McMichen on fiddles, Riley Pucket on guitar and vocals, and Fate Norris on banjo) recorded the song in Atlanta on April 17th, 1926, one of eight sides for Columbia records. Wayne W. Daniel (in his book Pickin’ on Peachtree: A History of Country Music in Atlanta, Georgia, 1990) opines: “The output from this historic recording session makes for a rather unimpressive list of what even there were long-familiar tunes and songs: “Hand Me Down My Walking Cane,” “Bully of the Town,” “Pass Around the Bottle and We’ll All Take a Drink,” “Alabama Jubilee,” “Watermelon on the Vine,” “Don’t You Hear Jerusalem Moan,” “Ya Gotta Quit Kickin’ My Dog Aroun’,” and “Turkey in the Straw.””


      Burl Hammons, son of Edden Hammons mentioned above, played the tune and related this story about it (printed in the booklet with The Hammons Family: Traditions of a West Virginia Family and Friends):


      Well, I was—where we lived, we lived down on the Williams River, when the—when I

      saw this thing, and so--. And we always went to bed pretty early, my dad did, and—about

      eight o’clock we always went to bed—and I laid down and I, didn’t seem like I could go

      to sleep. And I laid there a while and just directly I heard the click, open come the door,

      and in walked this skeleton of a man, Lord, I’ve—he was really tall, a-must’ve been six

      or seven feet tall or looked like that. And he had—I noticed he had a fiddle in his hand

      when he walked in; and he walked about the middle of the floor where I was a-sleeping.

      And he took off on that Turkey in the Straw, and boys I never heard nothing played like

      that in my life. And I shut my eyes to keep from looking at the skeleton of a man, but I

      was still listening at that tune. And, when I opened my eyes, he’d—I waited till he finished

      the tune before I opened my eyes, but he—when he finished it he was still a-standing but

      he just turned and walked to the door, and just ‘click’ open come the door and out he went.


      And the next morning I was a-tellingmy dad about that. “Ah,” he said, “that’s a bunch of

      foolishness. Quit.” He said, “That was only just a dream or something you had,” he said.

      “Quit thinking of such stuff as that.” “No,” I said, “it was the truth.” I said, I wished I

      could’ve played Turkey in the Straw like that. “Ah,” he said, “that’s foolishness.” And I

      never told no more about it, but I can still mind that—what ever it was, I don’t know

      whether it was a dream or not, but I tell you I can still mind about it. A six or seven—a

      fellow only six or seven year old and still can mind that just as well as it was the day, you

      know it’s bound to be pretty plain, now—or he couldn’t have minded that.


      A 1927 newspaper cartoon lampooned Henry Ford’s championing of “old-time” music and dance.


      The tune was popular enough that even Irish-American bands recorded it: O’Leary’s Irish Minstrels, from Boston, recorded it in 1928, and that same year the Flanagan Brothers recorded a medley in New York featuring “Turkey” along with “Chicken Reel” and “Arkansas Traveller.” Captain Francis O’Neill printed a version of “Turkey” that was recorded in more modern times by the Irish band De Dannan (on “Song for Ireland”). Scottish band-leader and accordion player Jimmy Shands recorded “Turkey” in a 1939 medley with “Chicken Reel.” “Turkey” was recorded and played by Sliabh Luachra (Rushy Mountain region, County Kerry/Cork) fiddler Denis Murphy and accordion player Johnny O’Leary, who learned it from influential fiddler Padraig O’Keeffe, although where he learned the tune is unknown. O’Neill (1922) remarks in a long note: ‘Turkey in the Straw’, or ‘Old Zip Coon’, as played nowadays may suit the rapid movements of buckdancers, but the frenzied rhythm is ruinous to the melody. Rendered after the manner of the famous Dan Emmett of Bryant's Minstrels, in slow reel time, this popular tune acquires a much enhanced appeal. Emmett, it will be remembered, was the author of the immortal ‘Dixie’, and it was his version of ‘Turkey in the Straw’ which we obtained from (fiddler) John McFadden of the Chicago Irish Music Club, that is here presented. The origin of this favorite of our fathers is wrapped in even deeper mystery than that of ‘Yankee Doodle’. Under the title ‘Old Zip Coon’ the tune appeared in Howe's Collections about the middle of the 19th Century, and possibly earlier. The first gleam of light on the question of how the old title eventually yielded to the popularity of the new name, came through a chance conversation while fishing in 1920 with a northern tourist at Ocean Springs, Mississippi. The latter confidently informed me that Alderman Silas Leachman of Chicago, a native of Kentucky, was the author of ‘Turkey in the Straw’ - both words and music! The melody I knew was older than the Alderman's grandfather, yet here was a lead worth investigating, for it was his melodious voice that first brought him to prominence. An interview with the talented official at Chicago a month later confirmed the statement that he was indeed the author of one song of that name, the best of several others on the same theme. One question was settled. The popularity of the modern song relegated to obscurity the name of the ancient tune. The pioneers or early settlers of West Virigina, Kentucky and Tennessee were largely of Irish ancestry, and obviously their music or tunes more or less varied by fancy, and defective memorizing from one generation to another, were of Irish origin. Fiddling and dancing being inseparable from all festivities and important events, the tunes became much more diversified, but the swing and spirit of the Gael however was always discernable in their reels and quadrilles, and so continues to the present day. For the convenience of musical antiquaries who may be interested in the subject, an old Irish March, or Jig, ‘The Kinnegad Slashers’ to which is sung ‘The Land of Sweet Erin’, is herewith submitted as a tune from which ‘Old Zip Coon’ or ‘Turkey in the Straw’ could have been derived or evolved. A third part added later by musicians is not essential in this illustration.”


      Lyrics set to the tune usually go something like the following:


      As I went down the new‑cut road,

      I met Miss Possum and I met Mr. Toad.

      And every time the toad would sing,

      The possum cut the pigeon‑wing.

      Turkey in the straw, haw! haw! haw!

      Turkey in the hay, hey! hey! hey!

      The bull‑frog danced with his mother‑in‑law,

      And they played 'em up a tune called turkey in the straw. (Ford)


      Bryant’s 1861 verses begin:


      As I was a-going down the road
      With a tired team and a heavy load
      I crack'd my whip and the leader sprung
      I says day-day to the wagon tongue

      Turkey in the straw, turkey in the hay
      Roll 'em up and twist 'em up a high tuckahaw

      And twist 'em up a tune called Turkey in the Straw


      African-American collector Thomas Talley, in his work Negro Folk Rhymes (1922, reprinted in 1991 edited by Charles Wolfe), printed an unusual version called “A Day’s Happiness.” Wolfe notes that while there were dozens of recordings of the tune by early country musicians there were very few by blacks. Talley’s song goes:

      I went out to milk an’ I didn’ know how,

      I milked dat goat instid o’ dat cow;

      While a Nigger a-settin’ wid a gapin’ jaw,

      Kept winkin’ his eye at a tucky in de straw.


      I went out de gate an’ I went down de road,

      An’ I met Miss ‘Possum an’ I met Mistah Toad;

      An’ ev’y time Miss ‘Possum ‘ould sing,

      Mistah Toad ‘ould cut dat Pigeon’s Wing.


      I went in a whoop, as I went down de road;

      I had a bawky team an’ a heavy load.

      I cracked my whip, an’ ole Beck sprung,

      An’ she busted out my wagin tongue.


      Dat night dere ‘us a-gittin’ up, shores you’re born,

      De louse go to supper, an’ de flea blow de horn.

      Dat raccoon paced, an’ dat ‘possum trot;

      Dat old goose laid, an’ de gander not.

    Miss McCall's Reel
  • Armstrong's name for it. I think it's got to be Miss McLeod's Reel, a popular contradance tune.
    * "There was a woman in our town ..."

    "Pete McCue's Straw Stack" -
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